For an overview how Angiogenesis relates to Cancer, see Can We Eat to Starve Cancer by William Li (6):


Turmeric helps control angiogenesis. In the Ted video above @ 14:23, it places turmeric near the top of the list of foods that normalise angiogenesis, below Vitamin E.


However, it’s possible to take much more turmeric than it is possible to take Vitamin E, so turmeric is more effective at normalising angiogenesis.

Turmeric powder contains 2% of the active ingredient which is curcumin [citation required]. Therefore, the recommended dose of 1000 milligrams of curcumin [citation required] represents 50,000 milligrams of turmeric powder, or 50 grams. This amount of turmeric would be very difficult to eat. Thus, we need to extract the active ingredient (curcumin) and use that instead.

See Potential anticancer properties and mechanisms of action of curcumin by Vallianou NG (1).

Curcumin is Recommended?

Yes. Curcumin is very safe, and extremely non toxic if taken in the correct dosage [citation required].

Curcumin Dosage?

1000 milligrams of curcumin per day [citation required].

I have been personally taking 1000mg of curcumin for the past 6 months with no side effects.

When you buy turmeric extract, ignore the amount of turmeric powder that the pill contains. Instead, look for the amount of the active ingredient which is curcumin (or curcuminoids).

Here is an example of a bottle label that shows 1100 milligrams (mg) of curcumin:


Look for a turmeric extract that contains black pepper extract (piperine), as this will increase the absorption of curcmin (3).

Turmeric extract is very common, and as long as the minimum requirements are met, you can buy it from any manufacturer.

I am deliberately not recommending a manufacturer, in order to maintain this website’s reputation as being completely objective.

Curcumin Links

See 11 Health Benefits of Curcumin, Turmeric’s Secret Weapon.

Copper and All Cause Mortality

Increase copper levels are associated with increased all cause mortality.

From Zinc, copper, and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality by Leone N et. al. (4):



Experimental data suggest that zinc, copper, and magnesium are involved in carcinogenesis and atherogenesis. Few longitudinal studies have related these minerals to cancer or cardiovascular disease mortality in a population.


Data from the Paris Prospective Study 2, a cohort of 4035 men age 30-60 years at baseline, were used to assess the association between serum zinc, copper, and magnesium and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Serum mineral values measured at baseline were divided into quartiles and classified into low (1st quartile, referent group), medium (2nd-3rd quartiles), and high (4th quartile) values. During 18-year follow up, 339 deaths occurred, 176 as a result of cancer and 56 of cardiovascular origin. Relative risks (RRs) for each element were inferred using Cox’s proportional hazard model after controlling for various potential confounders.


High copper values (4th quartile) were associated with a 50% increase in RRs for all-cause deaths (RR = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.1), a 40% increase for cancer mortality (1.4; 0.9-2.2), and a 30% increase for cardiovascular mortality (1.3; 0.6-2.8) compared with low values (1st quartile). High magnesium values were negatively related to mortality with a 40% decrease in RR for all-cause (0.6; 0.4-0.8) and cardiovascular deaths (0.6; 0.2-1.2) and by 50% for cancer deaths (0.5; 0.3-0.8). Additionally, subjects with a combination of low zinc and high copper values had synergistically increased all-cause (2.6; 1.4-5.0) and cancer (2.7; 1.0-7.3) mortality risks. Similarly, combined low zinc and high magnesium values were associated with decreased all-cause (0.2; 0.1-0.5) and cancer (0.2; 0.1-0.8) mortality risks.


High serum copper, low serum magnesium, and concomitance of low serum zinc with high serum copper or low serum magnesium contribute to an increased mortality risk in middle-aged men.

Zinc and Angiogenesis

See this site’s page on Magnesium and Zinc.

Zinc supplementation reduces copper levels which deprives cancer tumors of the blood vessels they need to expand [citation required].


Like Zinc, Tetrathiomolybdate works to reduce copper levels, which deprives tumors of the blood vessels they need to grow.

Quote from

TM is a non-toxic drug that was developed for the treatment of Wilson’s disease, a condition of copper buildup in the body. It has also been studied in humans and found to stop the growth of various cancers. It has been determined that copper is involved in turning on the process of angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels) which cancerous tumours depend on for growth. TM works by removing copper from the body, preventing tumours from forming blood vessels which prevents their growth. TM has also been shown to slow or stop the growth of a wide range of cancers including:

  • angiosarcoma
  • breast cancer
  • colon cancer
  • kidney cancer
  • liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
  • lung cancer
  • melanoma
  • mesothelioma
  • nasopharyngeal carcinom
  • pancreatic cancer

It has also been shown to enhance the effects of:

  • chemotherapy with breast cancer
  • radiation therapy with lung cancer

In addition, we have confirmed that ovarian carcinoma can also respond favourably to TM.

Full paper: See TM-FAQs.pdf.

If taking tetrathiomolybdate, one will have to monitor blood copper levels. If copper levels get too low, then this could be unhealthy.

Quote from Tetrathiomolybdate – Not DCA, but well worth knowing about (5)

Tetrathiomolybdate: Not DCA, but well worth knowing about

Tetrathiomolybdate, or TM, is an incredibly effective copper chelating material. We first learned of it when searching for a treatment for close family friend. Paul was diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma (asbestos cancer) and given about 9 months to live. Doctors said they could do little to help him.

We focused on stopping vascularization of the tumor, known as antiangiogenesis. Green tea extract is an example. Paul started all these things but nothing worked and the tumor kept growing. We then discovered the work done by Doctor George Brewer of the University of Michigan. Dr. Brewer found that tetrathiomolydate, a compound that binds up copper easily with essentially no side effects, worked remarkably well in stopping vascularization of tumors.

Previous to starting TM, we suggested that Paul get his serum zinc and copper levels determined. Normally these levels are about equal. But many studies have shown that in aggressive tumors the ratio of copper to zinc is 5 to 1. And that was what Paul’s ratio was! By taking zinc supplements and TM, he changed his copper to zinc ratio to 1 to 5. The tumor stopped growing, and has not grown since. Paul lives a normal life, taking his zinc and TM, with no side effects. He is living with cancer and has now for nearly three years.

Tetrathiomolybdate is Recommended?

Yes, if copper to zinc ratios are not optimal.

“optimal” is defined as roughly equal amounts of zinc and copper, i.e. at least a 1:1 ratio of Zinc:Copper. If there is much more copper than zinc, then this is not acceptable, i.e. a ratio of Zinc:Copper of 1:3. If this ratio is not acceptable, then look at supplementing with zinc first, then try tetrathiomolybdate as a last resort if this does not work.

In the UK, one can order a Zinc and Copper test from the NHS, it costs £22. See, click the link “Tests”.

Tetrathiomolybdate Dosage?

Quote from The DCA Site:

Paul takes four 20 mg tablets of TM daily, 2 in the morning and two at night, for a total of 80 mg/day.

He takes 200 mg of zinc daily.

Quote from The DCA Site on Compounding Pharmacists:

TM can be obtained from a compounding pharmacist.

“… compounding pharmacists fight that battle of non-patentable medicines with the FDA daily. Presented with a valid prescription by a knowledgeable physician, most would compound the concentrations needed for accurate dosing, whether it be TM or other alternative therapies. I certainly would be quick to use these therapies having seen the results for years.” from Mark F. Binkley, D.Ph, Compounding Pharmacist/Chemist.

“Reputable compounders across the country are members of International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists (IACP). They have to sign in, then they can ask for the nearest compounder by zip code search. Chances are there is one very close that can help.”


2 thoughts on “Angiogenesis

  • April 26, 2018 at 8:03 pm


    hope all is well

    do you know where i can buy AMMONIUM TETRATHIOMOLYBDATE for a cancer patient in the UK?

    all best

    • July 22, 2018 at 1:59 pm

      Hi, firstly, my apologies for the hugely late reply. I think I missed the notification email. I don’t know where to buy Tetrathiomolybdate. What I do know is that you have to test your Copper:Zinc ratios first, before taking this. You can get a test from the NHS for £22, see You can also click on the “Tests” link on the front page of There should be roughly equal amounts of zinc and copper. If there is more copper than zinc (i.e. 3 times more copper than zinc, for a zinc:copper ratio of 1:3), then first try supplementing with zinc, then try Tetrathiomolybdate as a last resort. It might be an idea to talk to a nutritionist before taking action.


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