Overview

There are studies on www.pubmed.org which show that the combination of sodium bicarbonate and citrus flavonoids have the following properties:

  • Anti-cancer.
  • Anti-viral.

It is interesting to note the anecdotal evidence. If you look at the survivors on the forums of www.thedcasite.com, most of them are supplementing with a combination of citrus and sodium bicarbonate, i.e. lemon juice and baking soda. They use the juice from organic lemons, with sufficient sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH from acidic to slightly alkaline, i.e. somewhere between 7.5 and 8.0. In other words, it shouldn’t taste acidic:

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Are Sodium Bicarbonate and Citrus Flavonoids effective?

In addition to the anecdotal evidence, there are some positive clinical studies on www.pubmed.org:

Study 1 – Limonoids and Breast Cancer

This paper is from journal of Food and Function. (1)

Food Funct. 2013 Feb;4(2):258-65. doi: 10.1039/c2fo30209h.

Limonoids and their anti-proliferative and anti-aromatase properties in human breast cancer cells.

Kim J, Jayaprakasha GK, Patil BS.

Abstract

Lemons are a widely used citrus crop and have shown several potential health benefits. In the present study, the mechanism and effectiveness of the anti-cancer and anti-aromatase properties of limonoids were investigated for the first time. Defatted lemon (Citrus lemon L. Burm) seed powder was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) for 16 h each, successively. These extracts were fractionated using 1D (silica) and 2D (ion exchange and SP-70 columns) column chromatography to obtain nine limonoids. The compounds were identified by TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS techniques. A panel of 9 purified limonoids, including limonin, nomilin, obacunone, limonexic acid (LNA), isolimonexic acid (ILNA), nomilinic acid glucoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid glucoside (DNAG), limonin glucoside (LG) and obacunone glucoside (OG) as well as 4 modified compounds such as limonin methoxime (LM), limonin oxime (LO), defuran limonin (DL), and defuran nomilin (DN), were screened for their cytotoxicity on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7) or ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. We further tested the mechanism of the anti-proliferative activity of limonoids using an in vitro aromatase enzyme assay and western blot with anti-caspase-7. Among the tested limonoids, 11 limonoids exhibited cytotoxicity on MCF-7 whereas 8 limonoids showed cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Although most of the limonoids showed anti-aromatase activity, the inhibition of proliferation was not related to the anti-aromatase activity. On the other hand, the anti-proliferative activity was significantly correlated with caspase-7 activation by limonoids. Our findings indicated that the citrus limonoids may have potential for the prevention of estrogen-responsive breast cancer (MCF-7) via caspase-7 dependent pathways.

Study 2 – Citrus and Cancer

This paper is from Cancer Causes Control. (2)

Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Feb;21(2):237-42. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9454-4. Epub 2009 Oct 24.

Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.

Foschi R, Pelucchi C, Dal Maso L, Rossi M, Levi F, Talamini R, Bosetti C, Negri E, Serraino D, Giacosa A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Citrus fruit has shown a favorable effect against various cancers. To better understand their role in cancer risk, we analyzed data from a series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The studies included 955 patients with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 395 with esophageal, 999 with stomach, 3,634 with large bowel, 527 with laryngeal, 2,900 with breast, 454 with endometrial, 1,031 with ovarian, 1,294 with prostate, and 767 with renal cell cancer. All cancers were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls were admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by multiple logistic regression models, including terms for major identified confounding factors for each cancer site, and energy intake.

RESULTS:

The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer. No consistent association was found with breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and renal cell cancer.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicate that citrus fruit has a protective role against cancers of the digestive and upper respiratory tract.

Study 3 – Citrus anti-cancer and anti-viral

This paper is from J Agric Food Chem. (3)

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8285-94. Epub 2007 Sep 25.

Citrus limonoids: analysis, bioactivity, and biomedical prospects.

Manners GD.

Abstract

Limonoids are a prominent group of secondary metabolites in citrus fruit. The bitter character of some compounds in this group has historically compromised the quality of citrus fruit and juice. Detecting bitter limonoids in citrus, understanding their origins, and developing methods for their removal from citrus juices have provided the basis for citrus limonoid research. Evaluation of the biological activity of citrus limonoids has indicated the potential of these compounds to improve human health as anticancer, cholesterol-lowering, and antiviral agents. This review chronicles the evolution of citrus limonoid research from defining their participation in citrus bitterness to their potential utilization as important contributors to improving human health and well-being.

Links

See the summary article

References

(1) Food Funct. 2013 Feb;4(2):258-65. doi: 10.1039/c2fo30209h. Limonoids and their anti-proliferative and anti-aromatase properties in human breast cancer cells. By Kim J et. al. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23117440.

(2) Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Feb;21(2):237-42. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9454-4. Epub 2009 Oct 24. Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies. By Foschi R. et. al. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19856118.

(3) J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8285-94. Epub 2007 Sep 25. Citrus limonoids: analysis, bioactivity, and biomedical prospects. By Manners GD. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17892257.

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